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Template:About Template:Infobox company Hummer was a brand of trucks sold by General Motors that marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee), along with the Hummer H2 and the Hummer H3 — based on other, smaller civilian-market vehicles. The brand was not transferred to Motors Liquidation Company as part of the GM bankruptcy; instead, it was retained by GM in order to investigate selling the brand. Chinese automaker Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company announced in 2009 that it would acquire the Hummer brand, pending government approvals. However, the Chinese industrial equipment maker withdrew its bid after failing to win approval from Chinese regulators[1]. According to Reuters, the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China rejected the deal on February 24, 2010,[2] but a spokesperson for ministry denies that it rejected the application that has been stalled for eight months.[3] At the end of February 2010, General Motors announced it would begin dismantling the Hummer brand.[4] Two days later, the automaker announced it had been approached with new offers for the brand after the deal with Sichuan Tengzhong could not be completed.[5] However, by April 2010, any sale of the brand became unlikely as inventory depleted and dealerships began shutting down.[6] After filling a rental car fleet order, the last Hummer H3 rolled off line at Shreveport on 24 May 2010.[7]

History Edit

Hummers were originally built by AM General Corporation, which was formerly AMC-Jeep's General Products division,[8] in its Mishawaka, Indiana, assembly plant. They were created under a contract for the United States armed forces. The first model, the Hum-Vee, was built in a variety of military-based equipment and versions. The U.S. military, on receiving their quota, have adapted some of the vehicles, including modifications to facilitate a directional microwave crowd control beam (Active Denial System). AM General had planned to sell a civilian version of the Hum-Vee as far back as the late 1980s. In 1990, two matching white Hum-Vees were driven from London to Beijing over the rough roads of central Soviet Union. The Hummers made the trip with ease, for they were built to drive on off-road terrain. The highlights of this journey were broadcast in the United States on ESPN. This publicity would pale in comparison to the attention that the Hum-Vee received for its service in Operation: Desert Storm the following year. Also, a privately-owned Hum-Vee was modified into the first Snow-Vee, including the addition of caterpillar tracks, a new rear compartment and a new engine. This vehicle was designed for use in and just below the Arctic Circle, and the Antarctic. In 1992, AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or Hum-Vee) vehicle to the public under the brand name "Hummer". In 1998, AM General sold the brand name to General Motors, but continued to manufacture the vehicles. GM was responsible for the marketing and distribution of all Hummers produced by AM General. Shortly thereafter, GM introduced two new homegrown models, the H2 and H3, and renamed the original vehicle H1. AM General continued to build the H1 until it was discontinued in 2006,[9] and was contracted by GM to produce the H2. The H3 was built in Shreveport, LA alongside the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon pickups, with which it shares the GMT-355 platform (custom modified and designated GMT-345).

File:2006 Hummer H3 H1 and H2.jpg

By 2006, the Hummer also began to be exported and sold through importers and distributors in 33 countries.[10] On October 10, 2006, GM began producing the Hummer H3 at its Port Elizabeth plant in South Africa for international markets.[10] The Hummers built there at first were only left-hand drive, but right-hand drive versions were added and exported to Australia and other markets. The H2 is also assembled in Kaliningrad, Russia, by Avtotor, starting in June 2004. The plant produces a few hundred vehicles annually, and its output is limited to local consumption (five dealers in Russia). On June 3, 2008, one day prior to GM's annual shareholder meeting, Rick Wagoner, GM's CEO at that time, said the brand was being reviewed, and had the possibility of either being sold, having the production line completely redesigned, or being discontinued.[11] This is due to the decreasing demand for large SUVs as a result of higher oil prices. Almost immediately after the announcement, a pair of Indian automakers, including Mahindra & Mahindra, expressed interest in purchasing all or part of Hummer.[12] GM President Fritz Henderson stated several interested parties approached GM regarding the Hummer business. On April 5, 2009, Société de Participation Financière Eidos Canada Inc. (Eidos) made an unsolicited bid for Hummer.

Failed sale and other interestsEdit

On June 1, 2009, as a part of the General Motors bankruptcy announcement, the company revealed that the Hummer brand would be discontinued. However, the following day GM announced that instead it had reached a deal to sell the brand to an undisclosed buyer.[13] After GM announced that same day that the sale was to an undisclosed Chinese company[14], CNN and the New York Times identified the buyer of the Hummer truck unit as China-based Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company Ltd.[15][16][17] Later that day, Sichuan Tengzhong itself announced the deal on their own website. On January 6, 2010, GM CEO Ed Whitacre said he hopes to close the deal with Tengzhong by the end of January 2010.[18] On 1 February 2010 it was announced that Sichuan and General Motors had agreed to extend the deadline till the end of February as Sichuan tried to get approval by the Chinese government.[19] It was also revealed that the price tag of the Hummer brand was $150 million.[20] Later, on February 24, 2010, GM announced the Tengzhong deal had collapsed and the Hummer brand would soon shut down.[21] There were reports that Sichuan Tengzhong might pursue the purchase of the Hummer brand from GM by purchasing it privately through the company's new J&A Tengzhong Fund SPC, a private equity investment fund owned by an offshore entity that was recruiting private investors to buy into its acquisition plan.[22] The financial markets posed problems for established borrowers and even more for Tengzhong, a little-known company from western China, at the same time as the potential value of the Hummer brand continued to decline given high fuel prices and weak consumer demand.[23] The company announced it was willing to consider offers for all or part of the assets. American company Raiser along with several others expressed interest in buying the company. However, on April 7, 2010, this attempt failed as well, and General Motors officially said it is shutting down the Hummer SUV brand and offering rich rebates in a bid to move the remaining 2,200 vehicles.[24][25]

Models Edit

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Hummer H1 Edit

Main article: Hummer H1

The first vehicle in the Hummer Range was the Hummer H1, based on the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (Hum-Vee). Originally released in 1992, this vehicle was designed by American Motors' AM General subsidiary for the U.S. Military. Five years previously, AMC had been bought by Chrysler.

Hummer H2 Edit

Main article: Hummer H2

The Hummer H2 was the second vehicle in the Hummer range. There were two models: H2 SUV and H2 SUT.

Plug-in Hybrid Edit

Raser Technologies of Utah was to use technology similar to that in the Chevy Volt. Raser unveiled the prototype the 2009 Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress in Detroit.[26] Using their E-REV (Extended-Range Electric Vehicle) powertrain technology, the Hummer plug-in hybrid would run up to 40 miles per day on its battery alone, then a small 4 cylinder combustion engine will kick in to generate more electricity.[27]

Customized H2 Edit

A stretched Hummer H2 was customized with six wheels and marketed as an H6[28]

Hummer H3 Edit

Main article: Hummer H3

The H3 was the smallest of the Hummer models and is based on the GMT355 platform shared with the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon compact pickup trucks.

Concept vehicle Edit

Main article: Hummer HX

The Hummer HX is an open-air, two-door off-road vehicle, smaller than any other Hummer.

Off-road abilities Edit

The Hummer was the only brand in the United States whose entire model range lineup came with a low-range transfer case, relatively high-ground clearance, and off-road tires.

Racing Edit

Template:Imagestack Team Hummer Racing was created in 1993 and showcases the Hummer's abilities. Led by off-road racer Rod Hall, Team Hummer competes in the Stock classes of both BitD and SCORE, which feature production-based vehicles with stock frames, stock suspension designs, and production-based engines. Specialized racing shock absorbers, tires, and other minor modifications are allowed, along with the required supporting components and mandatory safety equipment. Team Hummer stock-class H3 driven by Hall finished first in class with the H3 in the 2005 Baja 1000. Team Hummer has tallied one of the most impressive records in production-class racing, earning 11 class wins at the Baja 1000.

Dakar Rally Edit

A highly modified, two-wheel drive Hummer was raced by Robby Gordon in the 2006, 2007 (8th place), 2009 (3rd place), and 2010 (8th place) Dakar Rally.

Licensing Edit

GM has been active in licensing the Hummer. Various companies have licensed the Hummer trademarks for use on colognes, flashlights, bicycles,[29] shoes, coats, hats, laptops,[30] clothing, CD players and other items.[31] Starting in the early-1990s, when AM General started selling to the civilian market, Hummers began making appearances in the film and television industries. Some earlier and noticeable appearances include seaQuest DSV which used the Hummer H1 in place of Humvees, and Earth 2 which featured a large, "solar-powered" Hummer Concept truck as their main mode of conveyance. More recently noticeable appearances include CSI: Miami, being driven by the chief of the crime lab Lt. Horatio Caine (played by David Caruso), during the 6th season of CSI: Miami, they received all new 2008 H2s with redesigned interior and in the 2007 Transformers movie the Autobot known as Ratchet transforms into a search and rescue Hummer H2.

Production Facilities Edit

Owner efforts Edit

Hummers have been employed by owners for aid in large disaster situations. Hummer Owners Prepared for Emergencies (HOPE) was created by the efforts of The Hummer Club, INC. and the American Red Cross. Together, the two organizations train Hummer owners with CPR and first aid skills, and basic off-highway skills so that they may assist victims during a disaster situation. GM paid the Red Cross $4 million to participate in the organization.[33]

Criticisms Edit

Criticism of Hummers includes the criticism of SUVs in general, although at a higher degree. Specific extra criticisms of Hummers include:

Size
Hummers (specifically the H1 and H2) are significantly bigger than other SUVs; this can cause problems parking, driving and fitting in a garage. Their large size also potentially poses a serious threat to smaller vehicles.[34]
Ecology
Safety and ecological perceptions from other road users has attracted a lot of criticism.[35][36] The Hummer (usually the H2) has been singled out and attacked, sometimes using violent means, as a symbol of ecological irresponsibility.[37][38][39]
Poor fuel economy
Even compared to other heavy passenger vehicles, Hummers without the alternate Duramax V8 engine have very poor fuel economy. Because the H2 is built to the over-8500-lb GVW class, its fuel economy is neither published by the EPA nor counted toward Corporate Average Fuel Economy.[40] For instance, H2 in one engine configuration averages about Template:Convert on highways, Template:Convert in the city, and has a curb weight of over Template:Convert, making it technically illegal for use on some streets in the USA.[41]
Safety
Crash data for Hummers is less complete than for other SUVs. Because of its weight, it takes longer and further to stop in emergency braking situations. As a Class 3 truck, the Hummer is exempt from many DOT safety regulations.[42] The H1 lacks standard safety features, including child safety locks, child seat tethers, side air bags and stability control. Large blind spots make parking difficult and possibly dangerous.[42]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. Template:Cite news
  2. Template:Cite news
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. Template:Cite journal
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. Template:Cite journal
  7. Template:Cite web
  8. The History of AM General
  9. Page expired - MSN Money
  10. 10.0 10.1 '"Hummer Sustains Steady, Upward Sales Trend In North America And Overseas" GM Media Online, October 10, 2006, retrieved on February 23, 2009.
  11. Template:Cite news
  12. Indian Automakers Eyeing Hummer?
  13. Template:Cite news
  14. Template:Cite web
  15. Template:Cite news
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. Template:Cite news
  18. news http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6055B220100106
  19. Template:Cite news
  20. Template:Cite news
  21. Template:Cite news
  22. Template:Cite news Template:Dead link
  23. Template:Cite journal
  24. Template:Cite news
  25. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2010/04/why-isnt-gm-selling-hummer/38655/
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. Template:Cite web
  28. "Hummer H2 Gets "All Stretched Out" To Become the H6" With 6 Wheels. Edmund's Inside Line, date posted: March 16, 2006, retrieved on August 25, 2008.
  29. Hummer Bikes
  30. Hummer Laptops. This product has been decommissioned
  31. Hummerstuff.com
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. Hummer Owners Become Unique Disaster Volunteers. Dead link as of 2010-06-09.
  34. Hummer Cons: The Downsides Of Owning a Hummer H1 or H2
  35. Drive.com.au review, with statements such as 'The mere mention of its name gets many people incandescent with rage'
  36. H2 Hummer: Do You Need Attention This Badly? - The Car Family Reviews - National Motorists Association
  37. Eco T-shirts: Anti-Hummer, anti-4x4 t-shirt
  38. Eco-Terrorists Vandalize Hummer » Outside The Beltway | OTB
  39. Template:Cite news
  40. "Road Test: 2003 Hummer H2: a tweaked Tahoe or the real thing?", Motor Trend magazine, retrieved on June 23, 2008.
  41. "Road Test: 2003 Hummer H2, Overview", Motor Trend magazine, retrieved on June 23, 2008.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Hummer FAQ - Little Known Facts About Hummer H1 and H2 Vehicles

External links Edit

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Template:Hummer Template:Hummer timeline Template:General Motors brands Template:General Motors Template:Use mdy datesar:هامر az:Hummer cs:Hummer da:Hummer (bil) de:Hummer (Automarke) et:Hummer es:Hummer eu:Hummer fa:هامر fr:Hummer ko:허머 id:Hummer it:Hummer he:האמר lt:Hummer hu:Hummer nl:Hummer ja:ハマー (自動車) no:Hummer (bil) pl:Hummer pt:Hummer ru:Hummer sah:Hummer simple:Hummer sk:Hummer sl:Hummer fi:Hummer sv:Hummer (bilmärke) ta:ஹம்மர் tr:Hummer zh:悍馬 (民用汽車)

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