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Template:Infobox Automobile The Chevrolet Chevy II / Chevy II Nova produced from 1962 through 1968, and the Chevrolet Nova from 1969 to 1979 are automobiles that were manufactured in the United States by the Chevrolet division of General Motors. The Nova was the top model in the Chevy II compact lineup. The Chevy II nameplate was dropped for the 1969 model year - Nova becoming the nameplate, continuing until early in the 1979 model year. It was replaced by the 1980 Chevrolet Citation introduced in the spring of 1979. The Nova nameplate returned for the 1986-1988 NUMMI manufactured, subcompact Chevrolet Nova based on the front wheel drive Japanese Toyota Sprinter.

OriginEdit

File:1963 Chevy II Nova SS.jpg

Chevrolet designer Claire MacKichan recalled about creating the Chevy II: "There was no time for experimentation or doodling around with new ideas from either the engineers or from us in design; And it had to be a basic-type car." The 1962 Chevy II rode a 110-inch wheelbase, compared to 109.5 for the Ford Falcon, at which Chevy's new compact was aimed. "I think that was the quickest program we ever did at any time," she continued. "We worked night and day on that car, and it didn't take very long to run it through our shop because we had a deadline." And that's what made the Chevy II one of the fastest new-car development programs in GM history - just 18 months after the designers got the green light, the first production Chevy II rolled off the Willow Run, Michigan, assembly line in August 1961, in time for its September 29 introduction. Unlike the Corvair, the 1962 Chevy II was deliberately never intended to be revolutionary in concept or execution; its mission was to give Chevy buyers a simple, back-to-the-basics compact car. When he announced the Chevy II to the press, Chevrolet General Manager Ed Cole described the car as offering "maximum functionalism with thrift." There was a lot of debate within the Chevrolet organization over just what to call this new car, and the decision to go with "Chevy II" was a very late one. Among the finalists was Nova. It lost out because it didn't start with a "C," but was selected as the name for the top-of-the-line series. Ultimately, of course, the Nova badge would replace Chevy II - but that wouldn't happen until the turn of the decade. In almost every way, the creators of the Chevy II used Falcon as a benchmark. The 1962 model range included sedans and wagons, just like Falcon, as well as a two-door hardtop and a convertible, which Falcon didn't yet have.

First generation (1962–1965)Edit

Template:Infobox Automobile generation After the rear-engine Chevrolet Corvair was outsold by the conventional Ford Falcon in 1960, Chevrolet began work on a more conventional compact car that would eventually become the Chevy II. The original car was of unibody construction and was available in two-door coupe and four-door sedan configurations as well as convertible and station wagon versions. The 1962 Chevy II came in three series and five body styles - the 100 Series, 300 Series and Nova 400 Series. The sportiest-looking of the lot was the $2,475 Nova 400 convertible - 23,741 were produced that year.[1]

File:1963 Chevy II 4 Door Sedan.jpg

Available engines for the Chevy II included a Template:Convert four-cylinder and Template:Convert and a Template:Convert inline-six. The six-cylinder was actually the third generation engine, replacing the second generation stovebolt. Rival manufacturer Chrysler had earlier developed the Slant Six in their Plymouth Valiant, a Chevy II competitor, when the cars were introduced to the public in late 1959 as 1960 models. Although the Nova was not originally available with a V8 option, it wouldn't be long before Chevrolet V8s were offered as dealer-installed options (between 1962 and 1963), up to and including the fuel injected version available in the Corvette. The combination of readily available V8 power and light weight made the Nova a popular choice of drag racers. In 1962 and 1963 the Nova option for the Chevy II was available in a convertible body style, and a two-door hardtop was available from 1962 to 1965, although the hardtop was dropped when the 1964 models were first introduced, but subsequently brought back to the line later in the model year. Like all Chevy two door hardtops, the body style was marketed as the Sport Coupe. For 1963, the Chevy II Nova Super Sport was released, under RPO Z03.[2] It featured special emblems, instrument package, wheel covers, side moldings, bucket seats, and floor shifter, and was available only on the 400 series sport coupe and convertible.[2] Cost of the package was US$161.40.[3] As mentioned above, the Nova option could not officially have V8 engines at this time — the standard SS engine was the six-cylinder — but small-block V8 engine swaps were commonplace among enthusiasts. For 1964, sales were hit hard by the introduction of the new Chevelle,[4] and the Chevy II received its first factory V8 option, a Template:Convert Template:Convert, as well as a Template:Convert straight six.[5]

File:1965 Chevy II Nova SS.jpg

The 1965 Chevrolet Chevy II and Nova were updated with cleaner front-end styling courtesy of a fresh full-width grille with new intergrated headlight bezels. Parking lights moved down to the deep-section bumper, and sedans gained a new roofline. Taillight and backup lights were restyled, as was the rear cove. The 1965 Chevy II came in entry-level 100 form or as the posher Nova 400, each in three body styles. The Nova Super Sport came as a Sport Coupe only, and its production dipped to just 9,100 cars. Super Sports had a new brushed-chrome console with floor-mounted four-speed manual transmission or Powerglide automatic, but a column-mounted three-speed manual remained standard. Bucket seats wore textured vinyl trim, and the dashboard held ammeter, oil pressure, and temperature gauges. An expanded engine lineup gave customers six power choices of the six-cylinder or V-8 engines; the four cylinder was available only in the 100. But, for Chevy II enthusiasts, 1965 is best remembered as the year the Chevy II became a muscle car. A Template:Convert V8 was available with up to Template:Convert, suddenly putting Nova SS performance practically on a par with the GTO, 4-4-2, and 271-bhp Mustang 289s-at least in straight-line acceleration. Midyear also brought a more potent 283 with dual exhausts and 220 horsepower. The Chevelle Malibu SS continued to eat away at the Nova SS market: Out of 122,800 Chevy IIs built for 1965 (compared to 213,601 Falcons), only 9,100 were Super Sports. For 1965, Chevy II had the dubious distinction of being the only car in GM's lineup to suffer a sales decline.

Second generation (1966–1967)Edit

Template:Infobox Automobile generation 1966 Chevy IIs introduced an extensive sharp-edged restyle based in part on the Super Nova concept car. In general, proportions were squared up but dimensions and features changed little. Highlights included a bold grille and semi-fastback roofline. "Humped" fenders in an angular rear end were reminiscent of larger 1966 Chevrolets, though the 1966 Chevy II and Nova had vertical taillights and single headlights. The lineup again started with Chevy II 100 and Chevy II Nova 400 models.

File:1966 Chevy II Nova SS .jpg

For just $159 more than a Nova 400, buyers could choose a Nova Super Sport. Available only in a Sport Coupe, the Nova SS was top of the line. The Template:Convert inline-six was standard on the Super Sport, but any Chevy II (excluding four cylinder) engine could be coupled with the SS. The Nova SS was visually distinguished by wide rocker panels and a bright aluminum deck lid cove. It had bright SS emblems on the grille and in the ribbed rear panel, and Super Sport script on the quarter panels. Wheel covers were inherited from the 1965 Malibu SS. Strato-bucket front seats were included, but a tachometer cost extra.[6] The ’66 Chevy II sales brochure clearly promoted the Super Sport as the “Chevrolet Chevy II Nova Super Sport”.[7] In 1967, Chevy II was still the name of the vehicle, but the Nova SS option package replaced all Chevy II badging with NovaSS badging. The Template:Convert Template:Convert inline-4 engine was only offered in the base Chevy II 100 series models. Buyers could also order a Template:Convert inline-six engine (std. in the SS),Template:Convert inline-six, Template:Convert or Template:Convert Template:Convert V-8s, Template:Convert Template:Convert V-8 and the top engine, a new Turbo-Fire Template:Convert V-8 delivering Template:Convert. This engine was first seen in the Chevelle. This engine with the close-ratio four-speed manual transmission turned the normally mild Nova into a muscle car; The Powerglide automatic was not available with the 350-hp engine. The 1967 models received nothing more than a touch-up after a restyling for 1966. All Novas got a crosshatch pattern that filled the deck lid trim panel. The Nova officially was still called the Chevy II Nova and had overtaken the bottom-rung Chevy II 100 in sales. The Chevy II 100 lacked much in the way of trim or brightwork. 1967 models carried significant improvements in the area of safety equipment. A government-mandated energy-absorbing steering column and safety steering wheel, soft interior parts such as armrests and sun visors, recessed instrument panel knobs, and front shoulder belt anchors, were included in all 1967 models.

File:1967 Chevrolet Nova SS.jpg

The 1967 Chevy II and its deluxe Nova rendition continued to attract compact-car shoppers, but the Chevrolet Camaro, introduced for 1967, took away some Nova sales. Available only in hardtop coupe form, the 1967 Chevrolet Nova SS got a new black-accented anodized aluminum grille. SS wheel covers were again inherited, this time from the 1966 Impala SS. Nova versions started with the Template:Convertin-line six engine but new was an optional Template:Convert inline-six. Further powertrain options included a Template:Convert Template:Convert V-8 and, for $93 more, a Template:Convert Template:Convert V-8. Nova SS coupes had a console-mounted shift lever with their Powerglide automatic transmission four-speed manual. Other models had a column-mounted gearshift. Compared to the 1966 model year output, sales of the 1967 models dropped by more than a third to 106,500 (including 12,900 station wagons). About 10,100 Nova SS Chevrolets went to customers this year, 8,200 of them with V-8 engines. In the Chevy II 100 and regular Nova series, six-cylinder engines sold far better than V-8s.

Third generation (1968–1974)Edit

Template:Infobox Automobile generation The 1968 models were fully redesigned with an extensive restyle on a longer 111-inch wheelbase that gave Chevy's compacts a chassis that was just one inch shorter than that of the midsize Chevelle coupe. The station wagon and hardtop sport coupe were discontinued. One notable change was the front subframe assembly — as compared with Ford, Chrysler and AMC, in whose cars the entire front suspension was integrated with the bodyshell, a separate subframe housing the powertrain and front suspension (similar to the front part of the frame of GM's full-size, full-framed vehicles) replaced the earlier style. Although the front subframe design was unique for the Nova, the Camaro introduced a year earlier was the first to incorporate such a design; the redesigned Nova was pushed a year ahead to 1968 instead of 1967. The sales brochure claimed 15 power team choices for coupes and a dozen for sedans. Options included power brakes and steering, Four-Season or Comfort-Car air conditioning, rear shoulder belts, and head restraints.

File:1969 Chevy Nova 4-Door Sedan.jpg

Sales of the 1969 Chevy Nova fell by half. Chevrolet dropped the Chevy II portion of it compact car's name. Now know simply as the Nova The Template:Convert four-cylinder engine was offered between 1968 and 1970, then was dropped due to lack of interest (besides its other usage in the Jeep DJ-5A a.k.a. the Postal Jeep). Far more popular were the Template:Convert six-cylinder and the base Template:Convert V8, which replaced the Template:Convert V8 offered in previous years. At mid-year, a semi-automatic transmission based on the Powerglide called the Torque-Drive was introduced as a low-cost option for shiftless motoring for both the four and six-cylinder engines. The two-speed Powerglide was still the only fully-automatic transmission available with most engines as the more desirable three-speed Turbo-Hydramatic was only available with the largest V8 engines.

Nova SSEdit

The Nova Super Sport was transformed from a trim option to a performance package for 1968, one of the smallest muscle cars ever fielded by Detroit now included a Template:Convert Template:Convert V8 engine along with a heavy-duty suspension and other performance hardware, priced at US$312.[8] Front disc brakes were optional on the 1968 Nova SS. Optional engines included two versions of the big-block Template:Convert V8 rated at Template:Convert and Template:Convert, which went for US$348.[9] Both engines were offered with a choice of transmissions including the M-21 close-ratio four-speed manual, the heavy-duty M-22 "Rock Crusher" four-speed manual, or the three-speed Turbo-Hydramatic 400 automatic transmission. A total of 17,564 SS coupes were produced for 1968. Novas sported the SS badge until 1972.[10]

File:1969 Chevy Nova SS .jpg

For 1969 the Chevy II nameplate was retired leaving the Nova nameplate.[11] The "Chevy II by Chevrolet" trunklid badge was replaced with "Nova by Chevrolet" and the "Chevy II" badge above the grille was replaced with the bowtie emblem and the ’69 model was promoted under the Nova model name in Chevrolet sales literature.[12] Like other 1969 GM vehicles, locking steering columns were incorporated. Simulated vents were added below the Nova script, which was relocated to the front fender instead of the rear quarter panel. The Template:Convert V8 with four-barrel carburetor that came standard with the SS option was revised with a Template:Convert increase to Template:Convert, while a two-barrel carbureted version of the Template:Convert V8 rated at Template:Convert was a new option on non-SS models. The SS option price remained US$312[13] A new Turbo-Hydramatic 350 three-speed automatic was made available for non-SS Novas with six-cylinder and V8 engines, although the older two-speed Powerglide continued to be available on the smaller engined Novas. 1969 SS models were the first Nova SS models to have standard front disc brakes. Basically a carryover from 1969; the side markers and taillight lenses for the 1970 Nova were wider and positioned slightly differently. This was the final year for the SS396. All other engines were carried over including the seldom-ordered four-cylinder which was in its final year.[14] The car finally became simply the Chevrolet Nova this year after two years of transitional nameplates (Chevy II Nova in 1968 and Chevrolet Chevy Nova in 1969). Out of 254,242 Novas sold for 1970, 19,558 were the SS 350 or SS 396 version. Approximately 177 Central Office Production Order (COPO) Novas were ordered, with 175 converted by Yenko Chevrolet. The other two were sold in Canada. The Nova was used in Trans-Am racing this year.

File:1971 Chevy Nova SS .jpg

1971 Novas were similar to the previous year but with the discontinuation of the Template:Convert engine for the SS with the Template:Convert engine taking its place. 1971 also saw the introduction of the Rally Nova, a trim level that only lasted two years (until it resurfaced in 1977). The Rally kit included black or white stripes that ran the length of the car and around the back, a Rally Nova sticker on the driver's side of the hood, Rally wheels, multi-leaf rear springs, and a "sport" body colored drivers side mirror that was adjustable from the interior. The well-hyped Vega stole sales from the Nova this year, but the compact soon would enjoy a resurgence of popularity that would last deep into the 1970s. The Template:Convert six-cylinder engine was now the standard Nova engine with the demise of the Template:Convert four-cylinder and Template:Convert six-cylinder engines. The Template:Convert and Template:Convert V8s were carried over from 1970 and all engines featured lowered compression ratios to enable the use of unleaded gasoline as a result of a GM corporate mandate that took effect with the 1971 model year. After 1971, other GM divisions began rebadging the Nova as their new entry-level vehicle, such as the Pontiac Ventura II (once a trim option for full-size Pontiacs to 1970), Oldsmobile Omega and the Buick Apollo. Interestingly, the initials of the four model names spelled out the acronym NOVA (Nova, Omega, Ventura, Apollo). The 1972 Nova received only minor trim changes. The Rally Sport option with special suspension returned and was a rather popular choice, with 33,319 sold. Super Sport equipment went on 12,309 coupes, some of which also had the Rally package. Nova production moved to Norwood, Ohio, where it would be assembled alongside the Camaro. At mid-year a sunroof option became available on two-door models. Also, the optional Strato bucket seats available on coupes switched from the previous low-back design with adjustable headrests to the high back units with built-in headrests introduced the previous year on Camaros and Vegas. The Rally Sport option with special suspension returned and was a rather popular choice, with 33,319 sold. Despite the lack of change, Nova had its best sales season in years, with production of the 1972 models reaching 349,733. Of these, 139,769 had the six-cylinder engine.

File:1973 Chevrolet Nova.jpg

The 1973 model year introduced a hatchback bodystyle based on the 2-door coupe. The front and rear of the Nova were restyled, following a government mandate for vehicles to be fitted with front and rear bumpers capable of absorbing a low-speed impact of Template:Convert. To go along with the bigger bumpers, stylists gave the Nova a new grille with a loosely patterned crosshatch insert and parking lights located inboard of the headlights. An SS option remained available, but it was just a $123 dress-up package that included a blackout grille and Rally wheels. It could be ordered with any of the Nova engines. 35,542 SS packages were installed, making 1973 the best-selling year for the option. A modified rear side window shape was also introduced, eliminating the vent windows on both two- and four-door models. A revised rear suspension was adapted from the second generation Camaro with multi-leaf springs replacing the mono-leaf springs used on Novas since the original 1962 model. By this time, six-cylinder and V8 engines were de rigueur for American compact cars, with the Template:Convert and Template:Convert V8s becoming fairly common. The 1973 Nova with a six-cylinder engine or 307 cu. in.(5.0 L) V8 were among the last Chevrolets to be offered with the two-speed Powerglide automatic transmission, which was in its final year. A dressy Custom series joined the Nova line and a Custom hatchback listed for $2,701 with a six-cylinder engine. That was $173 more than the six-cylinder base-model two-door hatchback. Air conditioning added $381. Every 1973 Chevrolet Nova got side guard door beams and additional sound insulation, as well as flow-through ventilation systems. A sunroof could be installed, and fold-down rear seats were available.

File:1974 Chevy Nova Spirit of America.jpg

For 1974, The 1974 Chevrolet Nova got larger parking lights and new bow-tie grille emblems, as well as modified bumpers that added two inches to length and helped cushion minor impacts. The Powerglide was replaced by a lightweight version of the three-speed Turbo-Hydramatic 350 already offered with the Template:Convert V8, which was the only V8 offered for 1974. Nova sales continued the surge they had enjoyed since 1972 and approached 400,000 cars for 1974. Six-cylinder Novas were the fastest gainers, as sales of V-8 Novas declined. These were the years of the first energy crisis as Middle Eastern countries cut back on oil exports. After waiting for hours in gas lines and fretting about the prospect of fuel rationing, thrifty compacts looked pretty good to plenty of Americans. Nova fit the bill. The 'Spirit of America' Nova was introduced in 1974. In anticipation of the US bicentennial in 1976, the limited edition Nova Coupes were painted white and featured blue and red accent stripes as well as red and blue interior carpets and fabrics. Novas where also fitted with a weight sensitive relay within the front bench seat that prevented the vehicle from being started until the driver's seatbelt had been fastened. Later, a law passed by Congress banned this type of device, declaring that it infringed on a driver's freedom of choice.[15] The devices were not included in future Nova models. Oldsmobile and Buick entered the compact car market; both the Apollo and Omega debuted, using the same bodystyles from the Nova lineup. Additional options were included on these Nova-like models, such as lighting under the dashboard and in the glove compartment. Pontiac's final GTO of this era was based on a facelifted 1974 Ventura coupe, itself based on the Nova, but fitted with a shaker hoodscoop from the Trans Am.

Yenko NovasEdit

Retired race car driver and muscle car specialist Don Yenko of Yenko Chevrolet in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania refitted a series of Third generation Novas, as well as Chevelles and Camaros for optimum performance to compete with the frontrunning Ford Mustangs, Plymouth Barracudas and Dodge Challengers. The specially redesigned Nova (often badged as the "Yenko Deuce") had a stronger body frame and suspension system to house the enormous 427cid (7.0L) V8 engine that made the Yenko Super Cars. Only 37 were known to be produced with an original selling price of $4,000.00. Today, only seven units are registered and known to exist.

Fourth generation (1975–1979)Edit

Template:Infobox Automobile generation The 1975 Chevrolet Nova was the most-changed Chevy car for the 1975 model year. "Now it's beautiful," said the brochure of Nova's all-new sheet metal, "refined along the lines of elegant European sedans." Chevrolet wisely maintained a visual kinship with the 1968-1974 design, and also retained Nova's efficiently sized 111-inch wheelbase. Front tread grew by an inch and a half, and the front stabilizer bar had a larger diameter. Novas now had standard front disc brakes and steel-belted radial tires. The front suspension and subframe assembly was similar to the one used in the second generation GM F-body cars (the Camaro and Pontiac Firebird), whereas the rear axle and suspension were carried over from the previous generation. Coupes, including the hatchback, had fixed side windows (or optional flip-out windows) and vertical vents on the B-pillar. All Novas now had cut-pile carpeting, formerly installed only in the Custom series. Speedometers had larger, easier-to-read graphics. Windshields offered greater glass area. Front-door armrests were redesigned with integral pull bars. The base model carried the inline Six-cylinder Template:Convert, Template:Convert, two V8 engines (Template:Convert and Template:Convert) for 1976 only, were offered. Mated to a three speed automatic, 3 speed manual or 4 speed – V8s only – Which remained the norm through the end of the decade (and the end of the rear-wheel drive X platform).

File:1975 Chevy Nova LN 4-Door Sedan.jpg

The LN sent Nova into the luxury portion of the compact market; some actually thought of it as competing against a few high-end European imports. The Nova LN was called "the most luxurious compact in Chevrolet's history," with wide-back reclining front seats that "look and feel like big, soft lounge chairs." LN equipment included additional sound insulation, map pockets, an electric clock, a smoked instrument lens, and a day/night mirror. Swing-out quarter windows could be ordered for the coupe. "Thanks to LN," the sales brochure announced, "Nova's image will never be the same again." The 1976 Chevrolet Nova added a dressy Concours model to rival the Ford Granada and the Mercury Monarch, as well as top versions of the Dodge Dart and Plymouth Valiant. Like regular versions of the 1976 Nova, the Concours came in three body styles: coupe, hatchback coupe, and four-door sedan. Concours was the most luxurious Chevrolet compact to date. Rosewood vinyl decorated the upper door panels, instrument panel, and steering wheel. Concours models had an upright hood ornament, bumper guards, bright trim moldings, black bumper impact strips, and full wheel covers; more-basic Novas came with hubcaps. The Concours coupe also was the first Chevrolet coupe with a fold-down front center armrest. A V-8 Concours coupe sold for $547 more than the comparable base Nova. Engines for the 1976 Chevrolet Nova were a 105-horsepower inline-six, a 165-horsepower 350-cubic-inch V-8, or a 140-horse 305-cubic-inch V-8. A Cabriolet padded vinyl top was available for Nova coupes. Modest revisions were made to the brakes, and also to fuel and exhaust system mountings. Dashboards contained new knobs. After testing the 1976 Chevrolet Nova, the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department placed the largest order for compact police cars ever seen in the U.S.

File:1976 Chevy Nova SS.jpg

The $187 Nova SS option group included a black grille with unique diamond-mesh pattern, Rally wheels, four-spoke steering wheel, and heavy-duty suspension. 1977 model year minor changes included a more modern round gauge cluster to replace the long sweeping speedometer, and a revised dash panel which changed to a flatter design. Some new colors were offered (as with the rest of the divisions) and some small trim added. During the 1977 model year of Ventura, the GM Iron Duke was the base engine (in response to the Arab Oil Embargo) coupled to a Borg-Warner T-50 transmission (it has no relationship to the T-5 found in third-generation GM F-bodies). The Ventura was replaced by the Phoenix in the middle of the 1977 model year. Base V8 engines included Chevrolet Template:Convert (1975 only) and Template:Convert engines, and an Oldsmobile Template:Convert V8; Pontiac Venturas were not fitted with a Pontiac V8 from the factory after 1975, when Oldsmobile 260s and Buick 350s were installed as optional equipment. The Nova SS continued for 1975 and 1976; when the SS was discontinued, the option code for the SS — RPO Z26 — continued as the Nova Rally until 1979. Three engines and four transmissions were available for every 1977 Chevrolet Nova, including Concours. Buyers could pick a 110-horsepower 250-cubic-inch inline six, 145-horsepower 305 two-barrel V-8, or 170-horsepower 350 four-barrel V-8. Shifting was accomplished by three-speed (column or floor shift) and four-speed manuals or Turbo Hydra-Matic. Novas might also be equipped with a heavy-duty suspension or the F41 sport suspension. A surprising number of police departments ordered Novas with either a 305- or 350-cubic-inch V-8 engine, following the lead of the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department, which had given the compacts an exhaustive evaluation.

File:1977 Nova Concours Coupe.jpg
File:1977 Chevy Nova Concours 4-Door Sedan.jpg

The 1977 Nova Concours had finer-mesh grille and sported a stylish stand-up hood ornament, newly designed wheel covers, and wider bright wheel-opening moldings. "International in style, it is American in function," the sales brochure insisted of the Concours. It went on to note that Concours offered a "very special blending of classic style and good sense." That last referenced Nova's sensible size. Novas themselves, the marketing materials said, were "not too small, not too big, not too expensive." The 1978 Nova got a restyled front end and a Nova Custom model took over as top-line duty, replacing the too-costly Nova Concours. The Custom series had its own fine-mesh grille with built-in vertical parking lights, bright-accented headlights, triple-unit taillights, and hood molding. Custom models lacked the stand-up hood ornament displayed by the Concours. Upholstery choices included all-vinyl or Edinburgh woven sport cloth/vinyl.More basic versions of the 1978 Chevrolet Nova had a different, checkerboard grille texture, also inset with parking lights just inboard of the headlights. For '78 Nova was also available with Rally equipment, which included yet another front-end layout: a diamond-pattern grille with horizontal parking lights and black headlight bezels, plus triple band striping and color-keyed Rally wheels. All Nova drivers faced a new dual-spoke, soft vinyl-covered steering wheel; the same one found in the Caprice and Malibu. Any 1978 Chevrolet Nova could have a 250-cubic-inch six-cylinder engine, a 145-horsepower 305-cubic-inch V-8, or a 170-horsepower 350-cubic-inch V-8. Law enforcement agencies in 48 states were driving Novas by now, as the sales brochure boasted. Production dropped almost 100,000 for the model, to 288,000, making Nova the only Chevrolet series to show a sales decline for 1978. Sales of the Nova hatchback body style lagged well behind regular coupes and sedans, and base models handily outsold Customs.

File:1977 Chevrolet Nova Police.jpg

Upon introduction of the downsized GM A-body (later G-body) mid-size cars in 1978, the X-body and downsized A-platform had similar exterior dimensions. The roomier and more modern downsized A-bodies outsold their X-body counterparts. The 1979 Chevrolet Nova was the end of the line for the rear-wheel-drive Nova. The front end was revised with square headlights and a new grille for the short run; a modified horizontal-bar grille contained vertical parking lights. New chromed hood and fender moldings were installed, and new front-bumper filler panels gave the front end a more finished look. The lineup was the same as in 1978: base-level hatchback, coupe, and sedan, plus the Custom coupe and sedan. As usual, base coupe and sedan proved to be the best sellers. Nova Customs had a special acoustical package including improved headlining and full hood insulation, along with other luxury extras. These final Novas were promoted for their "solid value" and "reputation for dependability," capitalizing upon a 17-year heritage that had begun with the Chevy II. Fewer than 98,000 examples were produced. Production ended on December 22, 1978. Chevrolet's compact models were headed into the front-wheel-drive age and for 1980, Nova's place in the lineup would be taken over by the new and very different Chevy Citation.

Fifth generation (1986–1988)Edit

Template:Infobox Automobile The Chevrolet Nova nameplate returned in 1985 as a front wheel drive subcompact vehicle produced from 1985 to 1988. It was assembled in Fremont, California by NUMMI, a joint venture between General Motors in the U.S. and Toyota of Japan. This car was a re-labled Toyota Corolla FX16 The 1986 Chevrolet Nova was introduced in June of 1985 as a front-wheel-drive subcompact car.The 1986 Chevrolet Nova was built at New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI), a joint venture between General Motors and Toyota. It resurrecting a name last used on the compact-class rear-drive 1979 Chevrolet Nova. The new Nova was a rebadged and mildly restyled Japanese market Toyota Sprinter, a model sold in Japan as an upmarket version of the Toyota Corolla. Nova shared the Corolla's AE82 platform, Template:Convert 4-cylinder engines and was available with 5-speed manual, 3-speed or 4-speed automatic transmissions. The 1986 Chevrolet Nova was initially offered only in a four-door sedan body style. A five-door hatchback was added shortly after its introduction. The only engine was a carbureted 1.6-liter four-cylinder with Template:Convert. It teamed with either a five-speed manual or three-speed automatic transmission. This was the same powertrain offered in the Corolla. The four-door sedan listed for $7,435, a rather stiff tariff by Chevrolet standards. The five-door, which added a split-folding rear seat, started at $7,669. Corresponding Corollas cost a couple hundred dollars less. All Nova options were grouped into seven packages, which did away with the long list of optional equipment that accompanied such cars as the Chevrolet Chevette. (Simple though it was, the subcompact Chevette offered nearly 30 options). However, adding one of the costlier packages could easily push the Nova's sticker to over $10,000.

File:1987 chev nova.jpg

The 1987 Chevrolet Nova saw only minor changes after its introduction a year earlier as a near-twin to the front-wheel-drive Toyota Corolla. Wider taillights, body-colored bumpers, and new aluminum wheels for the CL options package made up the primary visual changes. Meanwhile, a rear-window defogger was added to the list of standard equipment. The 1987 Chevrolet Nova continued in two body styles, a four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. The four-door proved by far the more popular - by about three to one. Nova's only engine was again a 74-horsepower 1.6-liter four designed by Toyota, mated to either a five-speed manual transmission or four-speed automatic. Though Corollas were priced slightly below competing Novas, Chevy's version of the car could often be bought for less because slow sales encouraged dealers to discount prices. "Slow sales," however, meant slow by Chevy standards, for the Nova sold about as well as the Corolla. Aside from some minor interior and exterior trim differences, the cars were much the same, though Novas had a slightly softer suspension that favored ride over handling. The 1988 Chevrolet Nova added a sporty model to its lineup of subcompact front-wheel-drive cars. This new 1988 Chevrolet Nova Twin-Cam got its name from a double-overhead-cam version of the Toyota-built 1.6-liter four-cylinder found in other Novas. Novas contineud to share their basic design with the Corolla, and this engine had previously been used in the Toyota FX-16, a performance version of the Corolla. The twin-cam produced Template:Convert, 36 more than its single-cam sibling. A five-speed manual transmission was standard, as in the regular Novas, but the Twin-Cam offered a four-speed automatic as an option versus the three-speed offered on other models. The more potent engine elevated the 1988 Chevrolet Nova Twin-Cam into junior sport-sedan territory, but the advancement didn't come cheaply. The base Nova listed at about $8,800, the Twin-Cam went for $11,395. That price included fuel injection, sport suspension, power steering, leather-covered steering wheel, tachometer, four-wheel disc brakes, and wider tires on aluminum wheels, but it was a stiff tariff, and few were ordered. There were no color choices; all 1988 Chevrolet Nova Twin-Cams wore black metallic paint with a grey interior. Every 1988 Chevrolet Nova got rear shoulder belts, rear window defogger, and AM/FM stereo radio as standard equipment. This was the last model year for the Nova name at Chevrolet. Starting with 1989, Chevrolet pushed this car into its new Geo division and renamed it the Prism. Geo was Chevy's effort to come up with an import-sounding label to attract buyers who were not inclined to shop American.

ReceptionEdit

File:1962 Chevy II Nova Ad.jpg

The reaction to the 1962 Chevrolet Chevy II was mainly positive. Veteran Mechanics Illustrated tester Tom McCahill was favorably impressed with a Chevy II 400 Series Nova convertible he drove at a press preview for Chevy's 1962 models, held at GM's Milford, Michigan, test track. "Flat out, which with Powerglide was 91 mph, this little car never wavered and even over some rough strips it was one of the safest feeling 91's I have ever driven." The styling reminded "Uncle" Tom of a "small Mercedes-Benz," and he concluded that "with a little hopping up, a stick shift and its low price, it should sell like cold beer on a hot Fourth of July." Car Life was even more enthusiastic, honoring the Chevy II with its "Award for Engineering Excellence". "We think the Chevy II, in either 4- or 6-cylinder form, represents an important development in the American automotive field," reported the magazine. "We think it represents a return to sensibility in terms of basic transportation; it is a car of reasonable size, adequate performance and simple elegance." The award was mentioned in a 1962 Chevrolet Nova advertisement. (see right) Consumer Reports described the six-cylinder Chevy II as an "ultra-sensible, conventional car with outstanding interior space," but also reported "higher than average" interior noise levels. There were also complaints about the four-cylinder version's lack of refinement. "CR hesitates to recommend the Four for normal use. The Four is an excellent hackabout for specialized local use - if you can stand the vibration." McCahill put it this way: "The four wasn't the smoothest four I have ever driven, but it had nice response and will probably still be running long after Castro shaves his beard off." Okay ...Noted Consumer Reports in 1963: "New last year, the Chevy II has not yet developed into a smooth-riding, quiet, or in any sense luxurious car. It is an easy driving, agile one. By far its most important asset is a body with substantially the room of intermediate cars, but with a very compact silhouette and especially good entrance height." Motor Trend called the new Chevy II "a most straightforward car - simple, honest and conventional." Editor Jerry Titus was fascinated with the new rear single-leaf suspension: "How it actually works seems almost contradictory. There is a great deal of body roll, but the car does not feel unstable. The ride is soft and pleasing, but not seasick-soft with the constant pitching and rolling that some cars have." Interior room, steering, and brakes were commended. Performance was rated as "moderate" for a six-cylinder Nova convertible with Powerglide: 0-60 came up "a shade under 16 seconds," and the top speed was reported to be 98 mph, but Titus felt that "the car seems at its best below 75, where it did not feel as though it was working hard." The four, meanwhile, took 20 seconds to make it from 0 to 60 mph. In comparison, a 1960 90-bhp Falcon with stick shift took 21 seconds 0 to 60, also according to Motor Trend, while the 101-bhp six introduced for 1961 required 14.3 seconds with stick and 15.2 with the two-speed Fordomatic.[16] Motor Trend tested a 1964 195-bhp, two-barrel SS with Powerglide, recording 0 to 60 in 11.3 seconds, 18.0 seconds and 75 mph in the quarter-mile, and 100 mph all out. Fuel economy ranged from 12.3 mpg in heavy traffic to 19.6 on the highway. Motor Trend concluded that "By adding a V-8 and bigger brakes, plus detail changes, Chevrolet has made a nice compact even more desirable and a much better performer."

Novas internationallyEdit

CanadaEdit

File:1963 Pontiac Acadian Beaumont convertible.jpg

While the Chevy II and Nova were also sold in Canada, from the beginning a mildly re-trimmed version was also sold by Pontiac-Buick dealers as the Acadian, which was marketed as its own make, rather than as a Pontiac model.[17] It survived until mid-1971, after which it was replaced by the Pontiac Ventura II. Template:-

ArgentinaEdit

In 1962 Argentina assembled the first/second generation Chevy II until 1974 as Chevrolet 400, and the early third-generation (1968 model) Nova as the Chevrolet Chevy from late 1969 through 1978, both models overlapping for several years, the Chevy II marketed as a family sedan while the Nova as a sporty alternative. An upscale model was produced from about 1973 with different trim, front turn indicators and taillights, a much better appointed interior with plastic "wood" trim, and called the Malibu. This Malibu was 100% a Chevy Nova, no relation to the American Chevelle. All engines provided to the public were inline-sixes. The first and second generations were available, depending on year and model, with the Template:Convert , Template:Convert and Template:Convert engines. The third generation ("Chevys") were produced with the Template:Convert and Template:Convert engines with specially tuned carburetors for sporting models. The "Chevy" metal emblem for the third generation had the same font as the "Nova" emblem of 1968–1974 American Novas, and was, for the first few years, in the rearmost section of both rear fenders. Later, it was moved to the rearmost section of both front fenders, as it was in the American cars from 1969. Sidemarker lights were not mandatory and changed much during the production run, from being deleted, to leaving a small chrome plate, to the same light as in the American cars. Rear deck emblems just said "CHEVROLET" in chrome letters, obviating the typical "Model by Chevrolet" used in the American cars at the time. The hood emblem was similar to the 1969 American Novas, the bow tie, in blue or just chrome. Initially, the Argentinian Chevy used very similar trim to the American counterpart, usually being more luxurious, as the car fitted in a much higher market niche, being a "big" car for the local standards. Even then there were standard, plain models, without accessories. Many were used for cab service. Interesting to note is that the interior layout, especially visible in the instrument panel, remained the American 1968 version for the whole run. The ignition switch was never moved to the steering column, for instance, so no steering lock was installed in the factory. Power steering began to be available from the factory at the end of the production run, V8s were never produced for the car, and automatic transmissions were available with both: steering column selectors or with a floor lever, but not for all models, only for luxury versions. Power windows were not available, tinted windows were darker than American versions, and the darker band on the upper edge of the windshield was not present. Very popular accessories were vinyl roofs, rally wheels, sport steering wheels, bucket seats with high backs, and tufted leatherette upholstery (many sedans were produced this way). Interiors were mostly black. Steering wheels and instrument panels were for many years only black, as were seatbelts. American style interior color coordination was absent. The last year of the Nova in Argentina is called locally "Opus 78" (because the slogan of the publicity) and it was the most equipped, adding simil-leather bucket seats, air-conditioning, power steering, electric antenna, and a new dashboard with integrated central console. Their Super Sports, "SS" counterparts were both coupes and 4-door sedans, the latter of which was unheard of in the US prior to the introduction of the 1994 Impala SS. In fact, a majority were fitted with inline-sixes coupled to a ZF manual transmission with floor lever 4 speeds, a single two-barrel Holey 2300 RX 7214-A carburetor giving out Template:Convert and a sporting exhaust note. Corsa, a local auto publication magazine tested a Chevy Coupé SS Serie 2 and obtained a 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) time of 11.1 seconds.

Urban legendEdit

An urban legend claims that the vehicle sold poorly in Spanish-speaking countries because its name, spaced no va, literally translates to "it doesn't go." This has since been debunked.[18]. As noted by Snopes.com, the legend would be akin to an American not buying a dinette set called Notable, because they thought it meant they had no table.[19] The same has been said of the 1980s British General Motors product, the Vauxhall Nova, which had to be sold as an Opel Corsa in Spain. In fact this too is a myth, with the Spanish market offering being known as a Corsa from the outset.

GalleryEdit

Template:Gallery

ReferencesEdit

  1. John Gunnell, Standard Catalogue of American Cars 1946–1975, Revised 4th edition, page 174
  2. 2.0 2.1 Super Chevy, 5/94, p. 14.
  3. Super Chevy, 5/94, p.14.
  4. Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960–1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.281.
  5. Chevrolet Nova History, (Muscle Car Club), accessed 2010-03-06
  6. The Editors of Consumer Guide
  7. 1966 Chevrolet Chevy II brochure Retrieved from www.oldcarbrochures.com on November 20, 2008
  8. Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960–1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.579.
  9. Flory, p.579.
  10. Quentin Willson's Great Cars, p.148 [ISBN 0-7566-1730-8]
  11. John Gunnell, Standard Catalogue of American Cars 1946–1975, Revised 4th edition, page 196
  12. 1970 Chevrolet range brochure Retrieved from www.oldcarmanualproject.com on November 26, 2008
  13. Flory, p.653.
  14. Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960–1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.726.
  15. The Seat-Belt Story
  16. The Editors of Consumer Reports
  17. Nova SS By Steve Statham Retrieved from books.google.com on November 20, 2008
  18. snopes.com: Nova Don't Go
  19. snopes.com: Nova Don't Go

External linksEdit

Template:Commonscat

Template:Early Chevrolet cars Template:Turismo Carreterade:Chevrolet Nova es:Chevrolet Nova fr:Buick Apollo it:Chevrolet Nova lt:Chevrolet Nova ja:シボレー・ノヴァ pl:Chevrolet Nova pt:Chevrolet Nova ru:Chevrolet Nova sv:Chevrolet Nova

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