Template:Refimprove Template:Infobox Automobile The C/K is the name for Chevrolet and GMC's full-size pickup truck line from 1960 until 1999 in the US, from 1965 to 1999 Canada, from 1964 through 2001 in Brazil, and from 1975 to 1982 in Chile. The first Chevrolet pickup truck appeared in 1924, though in-house designs did not appear until 1930. "C" denoted two-wheel drive while "K" denoted four-wheel drive. The C/K light-duty pickup truck was replaced with the Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra in 1999 in the US and Canada, and 2001 in Brazil; the Chevrolet Silverado HD and GMC Sierra HD heavy-duty pickup trucks followed in 2001. For the first Chevrolet C Series, made from 1911 to 1913, see Chevrolet Series C Classic Six, (the first Chevy). Template:TOCleft Template:-
The 1960 model year introduced a new body style of light pick-up truck that featured many firsts. Most important of these were a drop-center ladder frame, allowing the cab to sit lower, and independent front suspension, giving an almost car-like ride in a truck. Also new for 1960 was a new designation system for trucks made by GM. Gone was the 3100, 3200, and 3600 designations for short 1/2, long 1/2 and 3/4-ton models. Instead, a new scheme would assign a 10, 20, or 30 for 1/2, 3/4, and 1-ton models. Since 1957, trucks were available from the factory as 4-wheel drive, and the new class scheme would make this known. A C (Conventional) in front of the series number would indicate 2-wheel rear drive while a K would denote 4-wheel drive. Actual badging on trucks still carried the series name system from the previous generation. The 10, 20, and 30 series (C or K) were badged as "Apache 10", etc. 40, 50, and 60 series trucks were badged as "Viking 40", and the largest 70, 80, and 90 series models were marked "Spartan 70" etc. in 1960, C/K trucks were available in smooth "Fleetside" or fendered "Stepside" versions. GMC called these "Wideside" and "Fenderside." Half-ton models were the C10 and K10 short-bed trucks, and C15 and K15 long-bed trucks. The 3/4-ton C20 and K20, as well as the one-ton C30, were also available. GMC did not use the "C" nomenclature, though their 4x4 versions had the "K" designation. The 1962 model used torsion bar front suspension, with trailing arm suspension rear. Trim lines were base and "Custom." Engines included the base GMC 305 in³ V6 for the GMC version, 135 hp (101 kW) 236 in³ (3.9 L) and 150 hp (112 kW) 261 in³ (4.3 L) straight-6s, and a 283 in³ (4.6 L) V8 with 185 hp (119 kW). A coil-spring front suspension came in 1963; along with a new base engine, a 140 hp (104 kW) 230 in³ (3.8 L) I6, and an optional 165 hp (123 kW) 292 in³ (4.8 L) I6. The cab was changed for 1964, with elimination of the "wraparound" windshield and a new front grille design, along with various interior changes. Air conditioning and a 220 hp (164 kW) 327 in³ (5.4 L) V8 came in 1965. A new base engine finished the model in 1966 with a 155 hp (116 kW) 250 in³ (4.1 L) I6. Template:-
A new, more modern look came in 1967. It was with this revision of the C/K truck that General Motors began to market trucks as general transportation rather than as work vehicles and nothing else. The majority of 10 and 20 series Chevrolet trucks from 1967 to 1972 were built with a coil spring trailing arm rear suspension, which greatly improved the ride over traditional leaf springs. However, leaf spring rear suspension was still available on those trucks, and standard on 30 series trucks. GMC models came standard with leaf springs with coils springs optional; all four-wheel drive models (Chevrolet & GMC) had leaf springs on both axles. The standard drivetrain came with a 3 speed manual transmission and one of two engines; the 250 in³ straight-6 or the Template:Auto cid V8. The optional transmissions were the 4 speed manual, the Powerglide and the Turbo-Hydramatic. The 292 in³ straight-6 and the 327 in³ V8 were the optional engines. The 1/2 ton trucks came with a 6 x 5.5" bolt pattern, the 3/4 and 1 ton trucks came with an 8 x 6" bolt pattern. In 1968, the Template:Auto cid V8 was replaced with a Template:Auto cid and a Template:Convert, Template:Auto cid V8 was offered for the first time. The most visible change in differentiating a 1968 from a 1967 was the addition of side-marker reflectors on all fenders. Also, the small rear window cab was no longer available. The GMC grille was revised, with the letters "GMC" no longer embossed in the horizontal crossbar. Another note for restoration is that the front of the 1967-68 hood was slightly less (approx. 65 degree angle)sloped and without 67-68 fenders, the hood will not fit 1969–1972 models. Another addition was the Custom Comfort and Convenience interior package that fell between the Standard cab and CST cab options. 1968 was also the year that Chevrolet celebrated 50 years of truck manufacturing. Also in 1968 the 3/4 ton Longhorn model was added to the lineup. The Longhorns were designed with a strong 8½ foot box that could hold a big slide-in truck camper. 1969 saw a new V8 engine: a Template:Convert, Template:Auto cid. Along with the new engines came a new grille design for Chevrolet trucks and a more upright hood for both Chevrolet and GMC trucks. A utility variant known as the K5 Blazer was also introduced with a shorter wheelbase of Template:Convert. The GMC version, known as the Jimmy, was introduced the same year. Some internal cab changes were also made, most notably the switch from a hand-operated parking brake to a foot pedal, and a more modern looking 2-spoke steering wheel with plastic horn button replaced the previous year's 3-spoke wheel with chrome horn button. Also new this year was upper and lower side moldings, which added another two-tone paint option. These were standard on CST trucks, and optional in any other trim level. The only noticeable change for 1970 was a minor update to the Chevrolet grille. At first glance, the 1969 and 1970 grille appear identical. However, 1970's plastic inserts actually have highlights that break the appearance into 6 separate sections. Several changes occurred in 1971. First came another new grille design (the "egg crate") for Chevrolet trucks and black paint over portions of the GMC grille. Second, an additional trim package was introduced: the Cheyenne. On GMC models, this was referred to as the Sierra. These packages consisted mostly of comfort features — nicer interiors, more padding and insulation, carpet, chrome trim, and upper and lower side molding and tailgate trim. 1971 was the first year for AM/FM radios factory installed. Finally, the front brakes on all light-duty trucks were switched from drum brakes to disc brakes, resulting in much less brake fade under heavy use. While many prior C/K half-ton trucks had used a six-lug bolt pattern (6 x 5.5") for the wheels, two-wheel-drive models switched to a five-lug pattern (5 x 5" bolt circle) common to Buick, Oldsmobile, Pontiac, and Cadillac passenger cars. The 1/2 ton 4 x 4 retained the 6 lug bolt pattern. This bolt pattern would remain the standard through the end of the C/K series (along with the Chevrolet/GMC vans). Also, Chevrolet changed the 396 V8 emblem designation to 400 V8. The change was only cosmetic, although the 396 was now known as the 402 V8. 1972 models were virtually identical to 1971 models with the only change being that the rear view mirror was glued to the windshield instead of being bolted to top of the cab, and metal or vinyl-covered flat door panels were no longer available; all trim level door panels were molded plastic with integral armrests and wood grain inserts on Cheyenne and Sierra trim levels. For restoration, it should also be noted that the door and window cranks were slightly longer due to the molded plastic door panels, and the vent windows were now secured with a single screw on the inside of the door, thus differentiating it from the 1971 model year. Engines
|Inline 6|| 250 in³ |
| 250 in³ |
| 250 in³ |
| 250 in³ |
| 250 in³ |
| 250 in³ |
|V6 (GMC)|| 305 in³ |
| 305 in³ |
|V8|| 283 in³ |
| 307 in³ |
| 307 in³ |
| 307 in³ |
| 307 in³ |
| 307 in³ |
Trim Levels (Chevrolet)
|late 1971-72||CST/10||Cheyenne/10||Cheyenne Super||Cheyenne Highlander|
A 10, 20, or 30 on the emblem indicates 1/2, 3/4, or 1 ton trucks. Trim Levels (GMC)
|1967-70||1500||Custom 1500||Super Custom 1500|
|1971||Custom 1500||Super Custom 1500||Sierra 1500|
|late 1971-72||Super Custom 1500||Sierra 1500||Sierra Grande 1500||Sierra Highlander|
1500, 2500, and 3500 designations were used to indicate 1/2, 3/4, and 1-ton trucks. In both series, the 'Highlander package' included special color-coordinated houndstooth cloth inserts and additional trim colors and insulation. Template:-
In 1973 Chevrolet redesigned their trucks, bringing about the square body that ran 14 years. The wheelbase was extended to Template:Auto in for the short-bed and Template:Auto in for the long-bed. A crew cab was introduced on a Template:Auto in wheelbase and was available in two versions: a "Bonus Cab" with no rear seat but lockable storage, and a "3+3" with seating for 6. The fuel tank was moved from the cab to the outside of the frame, and a dual tank option was available which brought fuel capacity to 40 US gallons. Part-time four-wheel drive was available via a NP205 transfer case; a full-time all-wheel drive system using the NP203 transfer case was also available through 1980. Trim levels for Chevrolet and GMC were:
- Custom ('73-74)-Custom Deluxe ('75-87)/Sierra — base model. Rubber floor mat, white painted bumpers and (through 1977) hubcaps, patterned vinyl seats, no headliner, manual door locks/windows.
- Custom Deluxe ('73-74)-Scottsdale ('75-87)/Sierra Grande — chrome trim, cloth or pleated vinyl seats (a choice was offered) everything the previous trim level has
- Cheyenne/High Sierra — woodgrain ('73-77) or brushed aluminum ('78 up) interior accents, cloth seats, chrome trim, carpet, headliner, more sound deadening/insulation (inside door panels, in the headliner, etc.).
- Cheyenne Super ('73-74)-Silverado ('75-87)/Sierra Classic — Extra woodgrain interior accents ('73-77), everything the previous trim level has, more chrome (i.e. bumpers and mirrors), tilt wheel, power doors/windows, and optionally cruise control.
For 1975, the 185 hp Template:Auto cid small-block V8 was added to the line and there was a realignment of Chevy trim levels, along with new grilles, clear/white instead of orange front turn signals. Base models gained a passenger-side woodgrain dash accent and a new plaid upholstery pattern (which would change slightly each year until 1978). 1976 brought a new gauge to show voltage, it replaced the ammeter. And the engine size decals were removed from the grille during this model year. For 1977 there was another round of new grilles, revised inner door panels that left less metal exposed, a 4-wheel drive full one-ton chassis was added to the lineup and a Dana 60 was used for the front axle, as well as an electric oil pressure gauge replacing the mechanical unit. Trucks with an optional trim level but without an additional wheel upgrade received flatter stainless steel hubcaps, still with painted accents. 1978 saw the addition of the 125 hp Template:Auto cid Oldsmobile diesel V8. All models got new, flatter dash trim panels, black on the lower two trims and aluminum-look on the fancier two. Base models received the flatter stainless hubcaps, and Stepsides got new squared-off taillights with built-in backup lights and side markers while the rear fenders were smoothed out where the old side markers were. 1979 models got a new grille surround that incorporated the turn signals; inside there was a new full-width "houndstooth" seat trim on base models and a (rare) fifth interior color option on the higher series called "oyster" by Chevrolet and "Mystic" by GMC (mostly white with a gray dash, carpeting and cloth). Some 1980 models had a new grille, others didn't: high-trim Chevys had both a new surround that incorporated near-flush square headlights and revised turn signals with a new, squarer grille pattern while a GMC base model was entirely carryover, base Chevys had the new center section in the 1979 surround while GMCs with uplevel trims or the separate RPO V22 option had the new square-light surround with the main grille introduced in 1977! Blue interiors were a darker shade than before, and cloth-upholstered deluxe models had a new seat fabric.
The trucks were facelifted for 1981. This included a flatter grille, shorter hood, and across-the-board rectangular headlamps (vertically stacked with the V22 option, single for base models), which were now fitted with halogen bulbs as standard. Either way, turn signals were now mounted in the bumper. The dashboard was revised more heavily than it had been since 1973, with a more squared-off profile and a slight "sweep" into the door on the passenger side. The Template:Auto cid small-block V8 was added to the options list, while the 400 was discontinued. Light-duty 4x4 trucks received automatic locking front hubs, and a lighter NP208 aluminum transfer case replaced the cast-iron NP205 and NP203. The NP205 remained in heavy-duty trucks but the all-wheel drive NP203 was completely discontinued. For 1982, the 151 hp Template:Auto cid Detroit Diesel V8 was added to replace the LF9 Oldsmobile diesel. The 700-R4 automatic overdrive transmission was introduced, and the Cheyenne package was dropped. Chrome front bumpers were now standard on base models. 1985 saw the new Template:Auto cid LB1 introduced to replace both inline-six engines. Hydraulic clutches were introduced. A variation of the C/K series was introduced in 1985 in Brazil, replacing the locally-produced C10, introduced in 1964. TBI fuel injection was added for 1987. Also for 1987, GM changed the C/K nomenclature to R/V (this is found in the 5th VIN digit). This was done in preparation for the next generation GMT400 trucks, which were produced concurrently with the older line. The new 1988 model trucks entered production December 8, 1987 at Pontiac East, Oshawa, and the new Fort Wayne plant. The 1987 models continued to be built at Janesville, St. Louis, and Flint. After 1987, R/V remained in use for the full ton 30/35 models, V30/35 regular cab dually, and crew cabs through 1991 (built at Janesville), and SUVs (Chevrolet K5 Blazer and Suburban, built at Flint) through 1991. From 1988 on C/K was used for the fourth generation "GMT400" design.
Sevel Argentina S.A. built the Chevrolet C10 in their Córdoba plant from 1985-91. The gasoline version utilized the Chevy 250 ci engine (4,093%nbsp;cc) familiar to most Latin American markets, producing 130 hp. Because of Sevel being a subsidiary of Peugeot's, the C10 was also available with a 70 hp Indénor XD2 2,304 cc diesel engine, perhaps best known in the US from the Peugeot 504.
Sidesaddle Fuel Tanks Edit
The third generation of GM's full-size pickup line featured what became, well after production ended, a controversial design change. The fuel tank was relocated from the cab to outboard sides of one or both frame rails beneath the cab floor extending under the leading edge of the bed, commonly referred to as sidesaddle. This enlarged fuel capacity from 16 up to 40 gallons depending on wheelbase and the number of tanks. This also removed the tank from the passenger compartment. According to the now debunked 1993 report which aired on Dateline, this placement made the trucks capable of exploding when involved in a side impact accident. The faked video was staged by expert witness against GM. Bruce Enz of The Institute for Safety Analysis used incendiary devices and a poorly fitting gas cap to create the impression of a dangerous vehicle. Fatality figures vary wildly. A study by Failure Analysis Associates found 155 fatalities in these GM trucks between 1973 and 1989 involving both side impact and fire. The Center for Auto Safety, Ralph Nader's lobbying group, claims "over 1,800 fatalities" between 1973 & 2000 involving both side impact and fire. Other commentators noted that regardless of the any increased risk of fire, the GM trucks had statistically indistinguishable safety records in side-impact crashes from their Ford and Dodge equivalents, and were safer in all crashes than passenger cars in general. In 1993 the bad publicity generated by the later debunked Dateline story spawned several class action lawsuits. As settlement GM offered owners $1000 coupons toward the purchase of a new truck with a trade-in of the old one. Even though the trucks met NHTSA 15 and 20 mph side impact crash test standards in place at the time of manufacture GM eventually settled with the NHTSA in 1994 for the amount of $51 million to be used for safety programs. The Fourth Generation (1988–2001) was designed and produced well before the lawsuits with one fuel tank inside the frame rails.Template:-Media:my truck.jpg
Template:Infobox Automobile generation Introduced in April 1987 as 1988 models (known as the GMT400 platform), there were eight different versions of the C/K line for 1988: Fleetside Single Cab, Fleetside Extended Cab, Fleetside Crew Cab, and Stepside Single Cab, each in either 2WD (C) or 4WD (K) drivelines. All C/K models would ride on independent front suspension. Three trim levels were available: Cheyenne, Scottsdale, and Silverado. Engines were a 160 hp (119 kW) 4.3 L V6, a 175 hp (130 kW) 5.0 L V8, a 210 hp (157 kW) 5.7 L V8 and a 6.2 L diesel V8. A 230 hp (172 kW) 7.4 L V8 was available in the 3/4-ton and one-ton trucks. In 1989, a half ton 2WD fleetside Sport appearance package was available with black and red bumper and body trim, and a black grille with red outlined Chevrolet emblem, chrome wheels with custom center caps, and fog lights. The 89 was a limited production run set to determine how well the "sport" package would be received by consumers in the years to follow. The Sport package was more of a trim and towing package edition as well as a few engine enhancements that weren't on available on other Chevrolet trucks of the time. In 1990 the 4x4 sport appearance package included black and red bumper and body trim, wheel flares, mirrors, and sport grille, 15" alloy wheels and special "4x4" badging on the box and "SPORT" badged on the bed sides, and a special Chevrolet outlined emblem on the tailgates, both preceded by a red bow tie. The sport package was only offered from 1989 until 1992 as some insurance companies began to express concerns with the idea of a high performance truck. RPO code was BYP. This model was only available with the standard cab and regular fleetside box. Colors included white, black, and red. A Z71 off-road package was also available with skid plates and Bilstein shocks. The Work Truck (W/T) was also introduced in 1990, which featured a single cab long bed with Cheyenne trim and new grille with black bumpers. Also in 1990 the GMC 3500 EFI with a powerful 454 (7.4 L) was available. The 454 EFI produced Template:Convert and Template:Auto ft.lbf. In 1991, the 4L80-E automatic transmission was available for the 3/4-ton and one-ton trucks. In 1992, the 4-speed manual transmission was dropped and the stepside trucks were available with extended cabs. The 6.5 L diesel V8 was also made available with a turbocharger. In 1993, the Sport package was made available for the stepside models, featuring body color bumpers, mirrors, and grille with cast aluminum wheels. The 700R4 transmission was replaced with the 4L60-E automatic in 1993 also. In 1994, the 6.2 L diesel V8 was dropped and the trucks received grille updates. In 1995, the trucks received an updated audio system and interior (including full instrumentation with tachometer standard). Four wheel ABS brakes were made standard in 1995 as well as driver's side airbag on 1/2 ton models. The Vortec V8s were introduced in 1996, with power boosts across the board for the gasoline engines. The Vortec V8's made between 255 to 290 horsepower, thanks to high-flow cylinder heads, new camshaft, roller valve lifters and a higher compression ratio. Speed sensitive steering was introduced on the trucks in 1997 along with a passenger side airbag. 1998 saw a revision to the steering wheel and airbag system and also the addition of the PASSLOCK II antitheft system. This platform was one of two where the traditional small-block Chevrolet V8 was last used (the G-series van was the last platform using the small block until the end of the 2002 model year). The GMT800 platform was introduced in 1999 although the GMT400 platform was produced until the 2000 model year in response to fleet sales. Although no longer produced in the U.S., GMT400s are currently produced in Brazil powered with a Chevrolet inline six.
In 1990, Chevrolet introduced a high performance variant of the GMT400 under the Super Sport emblem called the 454SS. It was available only as a 2WD half-ton regular cab short box in Onyx Black, White and even more rare; red. The 454SS was powered by a Template:Auto CID V8 producing Template:Convert and Template:Auto ft.lbf. A 3-speed automatic transmission (Turbo Hydra-Matic 400) and 3.73 rear axle ratio added to the truck's performance. The suspension was also upgraded with Template:Convert Bilstein gas-filled shock absorbers, a Template:Convert front stabilizer bar, and 12.7:1 fast-ratio steering gear assembly. Unique exterior features included a front air dam with fog lights, special rims, decals displaying "454SS" on the bed sides, red trim emblems, and black painted grille, bumpers, and mirrors. The interior was also unique with a special plush Garnet Red cloth with black trim, high-back reclining sport bucket seats, and center console. For 1991 a four-speed electronic automatic transmission (known as the 4L80E) was added to the 454SS, 25 more horsepower, and even higher torque: 405 lbs/ft at 2400 rpm. The rear-axle ratio was also lowered to 4.10:1 for extra jolt off the line. On the dash was a tachometer, oddly omitted from 1990 models. MSRP of the 1990 model was US$18,295 with a US$550 destination charge. 16,953 total units were sold over the 4 years the 454SS was in production with 1990, the first year of production, selling 13,748 units alone. The 454SS was discontinued after the 1993 model year.
In 1991, GM introduced (under the Chevrolet and GMC nameplates) a truck that bridged the gap between pickups and medium duty trucks, the C3500HD. The C3500HD was a 15,000 pound GVW (Gross Vehicle Weight) truck that was later replaced with the 4500 series. The C3500HD was only offered as a commercial chassis cab. The C3500HD came with regular cab as the only cab option until 1996, when the crew cab was also offered, it is not clear if the crew cab could only be ordered for fleets only, or if all consumers could order it as well. The extended cab was never offered on the C3500HD. All cabs came standard with upper marker/clearance lights. All but the most deluxe cab options were offered in the C3500HD, as well as all paint colors. GM never offered the C3500HD in four wheel drive off of the assembly line, however several aftermarket conversion companies offered them in a 4x4 version with either a Dana 60 or Dana 70 front axle. At least one company, Monroe Truck, was offered as a ship-through 4WD upfit using the RPO code VCB. Engine offerings for the C3500HD included the 5.7L (until 1995, when it was dropped for the 96 model year) the 7.4L, and the 6.5L turbo diesel (the 6.2L diesel was never offered for the C3500HD, no diesel was offered for 1991, 1992 brought the 6.5L turbo diesel. The L65 code 6.5L turbo diesel was the only diesel offered in this truck). Transmission offerings were the 4L80E 4spd OD automatic, and the NV4500 5spd OD manual, these were the only two transmissions ever offered for the C3500HD. The common drive axle used on the C3500HD was the Dana 80, an 85.8" wide full floating axle with an 11 inch ring gear. There have also been reports of Corporate 14 Bolt (a full floating axle with 10.5 inch ring gear) axles with upgraded axle tubes and hubs being installed. The front axle was a solid I-beam drop axle, similar to the axles of medium and heavy duty trucks. The GVWR of these trucks was 15,000 pounds. Both axles were suspended by leaf springs, and both axles had disc brakes. The wheelbases available were: 135.5", 159.5", and 183.5". The frames on these trucks were similar in design to the C3500 cab and chassis, but were heavily upgraded. The C3500HD, as well as the C3500 Cab and Chassis, featured rear frame rails spaced at 34", the industry standard for easy upfit of bodies. 2001–2002 While all other C/K pickup models were dropped by 2000, the C3500HD was produced until 2002 due to demand. In the brochures it is referred to as Sierra Classic/Silverado Classic. the only notable change was the replacement of the 7.4L Vortec Big Block with the 8.1L Vortec Big Block. Otherwise, the 6.5L diesel was the only other engine, and the 4L80E and NV4500 were the transmission choices.
Brazilian versions Edit
A variant of the C/K family was introduced in Brazil during the 1960s. These used the instrument cluster from the 1960-66 US Chevrolet C/K series although the exterior sheet metal layout is exclusive to Brazil. The models built included a light truck, named C-10, and a SUV named Veraneio (initially known simply as Chevrolet C-14/16), introduced in 1964. They were initially powered with a Chevrolet 4.2-liter inline six based on the pre-1962 "Stovebolt" engines. Later they used the 250-cid 4.1-liter engine from Chevrolet Opala. In later years a four-cylinder diesel (Perkins Q20B) was also offered labeled as D-10 (light truck only). An alcohol-powered version of the C-10 was offered beginning in the 1981, dubbed the A-10. After 1985, a redesigned pickup similar to the U.S. C/K series (1973-87 vintage) was introduced as the C-20, powered with the 250-cid inline six of the U.S. Chevy II/Nova. Diesel and alcohol versions were also sold, labeled as D-20 and A-20 respectively (later models of the D-20 replaced the Perkins Q20B with a Maxion S4). The original version of the Veraneio was kept in production until 1988 (model year 1989), but it was eventually replaced with an updated version based on the C-20 family. In 1997 GM introduced in Brazil the Silverado pickup with the same style of the 1988 American pickup. It was made until 2001. The line-up included a SUV named Grand Blazer. The 4.1-liter inline six engine with 138 hp was offered on both models with option for a MWM 4.2-liter turbodiesel unit with 168 hp.
- The scandal of punitive damages. Titled: "The Most Dangerous Vehicle On the Road", Wall Street Journal, February 9, 1993, By Walter Olson